Urinary GAA as a marker of chicken intake
Improved assessment of meat intake with the use of metabolomics-derived markers can provide objective data and could be helpful in clarifying proposed associations between meat intake and health. The objective of this study was to identify novel markers of chicken intake using a metabolomics approach and use markers to determine intake in an independent cohort. Ten participants [age: 62 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.25] in the NutriTech food intake study consumed increasing amounts of chicken, from 88 to 290 g/d, in a 3-wk span. Urine and blood samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, respectively. A multivariate data analysis was performed to identify markers associated with chicken intake. A calibration curve was built based on dose-response association using NutriTech data. A Bland-Altman analysis evaluated the agreement between reported and calculated chicken intake in a National Adult Nutrition Survey cohort. Multivariate data analysis of postprandial and fasting urine samples collected in participants in the NutriTech study revealed good discrimination between high (290 g/d) and low (88 g/d) chicken intakes. Urinary metabolite profiles showed differences in metabolite levels between low and high chicken intakes. Examining metabolite profiles revealed that guanidoacetate increased from 1.47 to 3.66 mmol/L following increasing chicken intakes from 88 to 290 g/d (P < 0.01). Using a calibration curve developed from the NutriTech study, chicken intake was calculated through the use of data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey, in which consumers of chicken had a higher guanidoacetate excretion (0.70 mmol/L) than did nonconsumers (0.47 mmol/L; P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement between reported and calculated intakes, with a bias of -30.2 g/d. Plasma metabolite analysis demonstrated that 3-methylhistidine was a more suitable indicator of chicken intake than 1-methylhistidine. Guanidoacetate was successfully identified and confirmed as a marker of chicken intake, and its measurement in fasting urine samples could be used to determine chicken intake in a free-living population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.
Yin X, Gibbons H, Rundle M, Frost G, McNulty BA, Nugent AP, Walton J, Flynn A, Gibney MJ, Brennan L. Estimation of Chicken Intake by Adults Using Metabolomics-Derived Markers. J Nutr. 2017 Oct 1;147(10):1850-1857.