Stability of creatine and GAA during pet food storage
The stability of creatine monohydrate (CrMH), crystallised guanidinoacetic acid (GAA-C) and granulated GAA (GAA-G) in a moist retorted and a dry extruded dog food formulation during production and storage was investigated. Commercial food mixtures were supplemented with CrMH, GAA-C or GAA-G. Uniformity after mixing and retorting or extrusion was determined based on replicate samples (moist n = 8, dry n = 10). Storage stability was evaluated at 25°C/60% relative humidity for 15 months and 40°C/75% for 6 months. Foods with CrMH were analysed for creatine (Cr) and creatinine (Crn), whereas GAA-C and GAA-G foods were analysed for GAA concentrations. Coefficients of variation (CV) for uniformity of the additives after mixing of moist and dry pet food formulations were below 15%, and the CV was lower in processed mixtures. Recoveries after retorting and extrusion were higher for GAA-G (79 and 99%) and GAA-C (89 and 86%) compared to CrMH (36 and 85%) foods. In moist CrMH food, Cr concentrations re-increased by 54% whilst Crn concentrations decreased by 39% after storage at 25°C for 15 months. With total molar Cr + Crn remaining stable throughout storage, Crn and Cr appeared to effectively interconvert. Storage of the extruded CrMH food at 25°C for 15 months resulted in a 63% decrease in Cr and a 39% increase in Crn concentration. The decrease in Cr concentration was larger at 6 months storage at 40°C compared to 15 months storage at 25°C. Both GAA-C and GAA-G moist and dry foods were stable during storage (<10% decrease). This study showed that GAA is highly stable during production and storage of moist and dry canine foods whilst CrMH is relatively unstable, particularly during storage. The latter makes it difficult to establish a guaranteed Cr content in finished moist retorted and dry extruded foods with CrMH.
van der Poel AFB, Braun U, Hendriks WH, Bosch G. Stability of creatine monohydrate and guanidinoacetic acid during manufacture (retorting and extrusion) and storage of dog foods. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2019;103(4):1242-1250. doi: 10.1111/jpn.13103