Lean-seafood diet increases urinary guanidinoacetate
Proteins constitute an important part of the human diet, but understanding of the effects of different dietary protein sources on human metabolism is sparse. We aimed to elucidate diet-induced metabolic changes through untargeted urinary metabolomics after four weeks of intervention with lean-seafood or nonseafood diets. It is shown that lean-seafood intake reduces urinary excretion of metabolites involved in mitochondrial lipid and energy metabolism possibly facilitating a higher lipid catabolism in healthy subjects. In a randomized controlled trial with crossover design, 20 healthy subjects consumed two balanced diets that varied in main protein sources for 4 weeks. Morning spot urine samples were collected before and after each intervention period. Untargeted metabolomics based on (1) H NMR spectroscopy and LC-MS analyses were applied to characterize the urinary metabolic response to the interventions. The lean-seafood diet period reduced the urinary level of l-carnitine, 2,6-dimethylheptanoylcarnitine, and N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, relative to the nonseafood period. The dietary analysis revealed that the higher urinary level of trimethylamine-N-oxide after the lean-seafood diet period and guanidinoacetate and 3-methylhistidine after the nonseafood diet period was related to the endogenous content of these compounds in the diets. Our data reveal that 4 weeks of lean-seafood intake reduces urinary excretion of metabolites involved in mitochondrial lipid and energy metabolism possibly facilitating a higher lipid catabolism in healthy subjects after the lean-seafood intake.
Schmedes M, Aadland EK, Sundekilde UK, Jacques H, Lavigne C, Graff IE, Eng Ø, Holthe A, Mellgren G, Young JF, Bertram HC, Liaset B, Clausen MR. Lean-seafood intake decreases urinary markers of mitochondrial lipid and energy metabolism in healthy subjects: Metabolomics results from a randomized crossover intervention study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jul;60(7):1661-72. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500785. Epub 2016 May 4. PMID: 26873789.