Growth and immunomodulatory effects of GAA
A total of 180 unsexed Nile Tilapia fish (initial weight, 21 g) fed isonitrogenous (32%), isocaloric (3000 kcal/kg) diets containing different levels of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) at levels of (GAA1, 0.06%, GAA2, 0.12%, GAA3, 0.18%); for 60 days. Results showed higher final body weight (FBW) and body weight gain (BWG) in groups supplemented with different levels of GAA. Specific growth rate (SGR) was the highest in groups supplemented with 0.12% and 0.18% GAA. Lipid % of whole-body composition was higher in all groups excluding GAA3 group. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, cholesterol, and creatinine levels showed a marked significant (P < 0.05) increase in all GAA supplemented groups compared to the control one. Triglycerides level demonstrated a higher elevation (P < 0.05) in both GAA2 and GAA3 supplemented groups. No significant observed in total protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio. Lipid peroxidation marker (malondialdehyde/MDA) is markedly decreased along with a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in both GAA2 and GAA3 compared to other groups. Similarly, interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) gene expression levels were downregulated along with upregulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) at higher GAA levels, particularly at 0.18%. Our findings give important insights for the growth promoting, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of GAA supplemented diet particularly at level of 0.18%.
Aziza A, Mahmoud R, Zahran E, Gadalla H. Dietary supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid improves growth, biochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity and cytokine responses in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2020;97:367-374. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2019.12.052