GAA, nitrogen retention and methionine flux
Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (256 ± 14 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design to assess effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation on N retention and methionine (Met) methyl group flux in growing cattle fed corn-based diets. Factorial treatments were 2 levels of Met (0 or 5 g/d) and 3 levels of GAA (0, 7.5, or 15 g/d) delivered by continuous abomasal infusion. Periods were 10 d in length and included 6 d of treatment adaptation, 3 d for total fecal and urine collections, and 1 d for blood sampling and flux measurements. Urinary N linearly increased (P < 0.01) with GAA supplementation and decreased (P < 0.05) with Met supplementation. Fecal N excretion was unaffected (P ≥ 0.42) by treatment. Retained N was not affected by GAA supplementation, but it was increased (P < 0.01) by Met supplementation. Use of methionine for transmethylation reactions, as well remethylation of homocysteine, was not affected by GAA supplementation when Met was not supplemented, but tended to be linearly increased by GAA supplementation when Met was supplemented (GAA-linear × Met interaction; P = 0.07), with the increases matching the amount of GAA provided. This response suggests that methylation reactions for compounds other than GAA were reduced by GAA supplementation when Met supply was deficient. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of creatine increased linearly (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) when GAA was supplemented. There was a linear increase (P < 0.01) in urinary GAA excretion with GAA supplementation. Neither plasma concentration nor urinary excretion of creatinine was affected (P ≥ 0.17) by treatment. No treatment differences (P ≥ 0.13) were observed for plasma haptoglobin concentrations. Plasma urea-N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with GAA supplementation. Concentrations of Met and taurine increased (P < 0.05) when Met was supplemented. Plasma arginine was greatest at the intermediate level of supplemental GAA (quadratic, P < 0.05). The increase in N retention when Met was supplemented demonstrates Met was limiting in the corn-based diet. Supplementation of GAA alone or with Met as a methyl donor did not increase N retention in growing steers, perhaps because creatine production was favored over protein deposition as a use for Met.
Speer HF, Grant MS, Miesner MD, Titgemeyer EC. Effect of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on nitrogen retention and methionine methyl group flux in growing steers fed corn-based diets. J Anim Sci. 2022 Aug 27:skac283.