GAA in newborn screening for GAMT deficiency identification
GAMT deficiency is an inherited metabolic disorder that impairs the synthesis of creatine. Lack of brain creatine can cause intellectual disability, autistic-like behavior, seizures, and movement disorders. Identification at birth and immediate therapy can prevent intellectual disability and seizures. Here we report the first two cases of GAMT deficiency identified at birth by newborn screening (NBS) in Utah and New York. NBS dried blood spots were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using either derivatized or non-derivatized assays to detect guanidinoacetate (GUAC) and CRE. For any positive samples, a second-tier test using a more selective method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with MS/MS, was performed to separate GUAC from potential isobaric interferences. NBS for GAMT deficiency began in Utah on June 1, 2015 using a derivatized method for the detection of GUAC and CRE. In May 2019, the laboratory and method transitioned to a non-derivatized method. GAMT screening was added to the New York State NBS panel on October 1, 2018 using a derivatized method. In New York, a total of 537,408 babies were screened, 23 infants were referred and one newborn was identified with GAMT deficiency. In Utah, a total of 273,902 infants were screened (195,425 with the derivatized method, 78,477 with the non-derivatized method), three infants referred and one was identified with GAMT deficiency. Mean levels of GUAC and CRE were similar between methods (Utah derivatized: GUAC = 1.20 ± 0.43 μmol/L, CRE = 238 ± 96 μmol/L; Utah non-derivatized: GUAC = 1.23 ± 0.61 μmol/L, CRE = 344 ± 150 μmol/L, New York derivatized: GUAC = 1.34 ± 0.57 μmol/L, CRE = 569 ± 155 μmol/L). With either Utah method, similar concentrations of GUAC are observed in first (collected around 1 day of age) and the second NBS specimens (routinely collected at 7-16 days of age), while CRE concentrations decreased in the second NBS specimens. Both infants identified with GAMT deficiency started therapy by 2 weeks of age and are growing and developing normally at 7 (Utah) and 4 (New York) months of age. Newborn screening allows for the prospective identification of GAMT deficiency utilizing elevated GUAC concentration as a marker. First-tier screening may be incorporated into existing methods for amino acids and acylcarnitines without the need for new equipment or staff. Newborn screening performed by either derivatized or non-derivatized methods and coupled with second-tier testing, has a very low false positive rate and can prospectively identify affected children. SummaryCerebral creatine deficiency syndromes caused by defects in creatine synthesis can result in intellectual disability, and are preventable if therapy is initiated early in life. This manuscript reports the identification of two infants with GAMT deficiency (one of the cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes) by newborn screening and demonstrates NBS feasibility using a variety of methods.
Hart K, Rohrwasser A, Wallis H, Golsan H, Shao J, Anderson T, Wang X, Szabo-Fresnais N, Morrissey M, Kay DM, Wojcik M, Galvin-Parton PA, Longo N, Caggana M, Pasquali M. Prospective identification by neonatal screening of patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2021 Jul 29:S1096-7192(21)00763-0.