GAA in human nutrition
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a nutrient that has been used in human nutrition since the early 1950s. Recommended for its role in creatine biosynthesis, GAA demonstrated beneficial energy-boosting effects in various clinical conditions. Dietary GAA has also been suggested to trigger several creatine-independent mechanisms. Besides acting as a direct precursor of high-energy phosphagen creatine, dietary GAA is suggested to reduce blood glucose concentration by acting as an insulinotropic food compound, spare amino acid arginine for other metabolic purposes (including protein synthesis), modulate taste, and perhaps alter methylation and fat deposition in various organs including the liver. GAA as a food component can have several important metabolic roles beyond creatine biosynthesis; future studies are highly warranted to address GAA overall role in human nutrition.