GAA feeding and methionine use in corn-soybean diets
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the single endogenous precursor of creatine, which plays a critical role in energy homeostasis of cells. Since GAA is endogenously converted to creatine by methylation, it was hypothesised that the effects of dietary GAA supplementation might determine the methionine (Met) availability in corn-soybean based diets. A total of 540, one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were allocated to nine dietary treatments with six replicates (10 birds each) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with three graded levels of supplementary Met (+0.4 g/kg per level), whilst cystine was equal across groups, resulting in a low, medium and high level of total sulphur amino acids, and with three levels of GAA (0, 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg). Birds were fed for 42 days. Increasing levels of supplemental Met enhanced performance indices in all rearing periods, although there was no effect on feed conversion ratio in the grower or feed intake in the finisher periods. Final body weight was 8.8% and 14.6% higher in the birds fed medium and high Met diets, respectively, compared to the low Met level. Relative breast weight and protein content in muscle on d 25 linearly increased with higher levels of Met. At low and high Met levels, growth in the finisher phase was negatively affected by supplementing GAA at 1.2 g/kg. It was suggested that disturbances in methylation homeostasis and/or changes in Arg metabolism might explain these findings. At the end of the grower phase, muscle creatine content was higher when feeding GAA at 0.6 and 1.2 g/kg (4464 and 4472, respectively, vs. 4054 mg/kg fresh muscle in the control group). The effects of dietary GAA supplementation were influenced by the dietary Met level only in the finisher period, which indicates the need for proper sulphur amino acid formulation in diets when feeding GAA.
Majdeddin M, Golian A, Kermanshahi H, Michiels J, De Smet S. Effects of methionine and guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on performance and energy metabolites in breast muscle of male broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets. Br Poult Sci. 2019;60(5):554-563. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2019.1631447