GAA-betaine affects high-energy phosphate in muscle
A single dose of glycocyamine and betaine increased the creatine phosphate levels in the skeletal muscles of adult rats to a slight but statistically significant extent. The creatine phosphate returned to control values between 6 and 12 days. Daily ingestion of glycocyamine over a 98-day period produced the same, but no greater increase, in creatine phosphate.
Peterson RD, Beatty CH, Bocek RM, Dixon HH, West ES. The effect of glycocyamine on the high-energy phosphate fractions in rat muscle. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1955 Feb;54(2):349-54. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(55)90046-1. PMID: 14350782.