GAA affects water holding capacity
The current study was carried out to detect the effect of dietary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation on carcass characteristics and meat quality in finishing pigs fed different dietary crude protein (CP) levels. Sixty-four barrows with an initial body weight of 73.05 ± 2.34 kg were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 (100% vs. 125% NRC CP level) × 2 (0 vs. 300 mg/kg GAA) factorial arrangement (n = 7). The feeding trial lasted for 49 d. GAA supplementation significantly reduced drip loss (P = 0.01), free water distribution (T 23 peak area ratio) (P = 0.05) and the concentrations of free alanine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine (P < 0.05); but increased total glycine content (P = 0.03) in the longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing pigs regardless of the dietary CP levels. Furthermore, primary myogenic cell differentiation system was employed to investigate the influence of inclusion of GAA on free amino acid concentrations in myotubes (n = 4) and validate the finding in the animal feeding trial. We found that GAA inclusion in culture medium also decreased intracellular concentrations of free alanine, threonine, methionine, isoleucine, valine and proline in differentiated primary myogenic cells in vitro (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, relative to diets with 100% NRC CP level, the intake of diets with 125% NRC CP level improved sarcoplasmic protein solubility, increased the contents of carnosine and total free amino acids as well as flavor amino acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle and decreased backfat thickness at the 6-7th ribs in pigs (P < 0.05). In addition, we observed that the impact of dietary GAA supplementation on the last rib fat thickness, shear force, and free lysine content in the longissimus dorsi muscle was dependent on dietary CP levels (P < 0.05). Collectively, dietary GAA supplementation can reduce drip loss, decrease the concentrations of free amino acids and flavor amino acids of fresh meat independent of dietary CP levels.
Wang L, Wang Y, Xu D, He L, Zhu X, Yin J. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid supplementation improves water holding capacity and lowers free amino acid concentration of fresh meat in finishing pigs fed with various dietary protein levels. Anim Nutr. 2022 Jul 14;11:112-120. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2022.06.016.