Epileptogenic effects of GAA
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) accumulates in the genetic deficiency of the GAMT enzyme and it is believed to cause the seizures that often occur in this condition. However, evidence that it is indeed epileptogenic is scarce and we previously found that it does not cause neuronal hyperexcitation in in vitro brain slices. Here, we used Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) to further investigate the electrophysiological effects of its acute and chronic administration in the networks of cultured neurons, either neocortical or hippocampal. We found that: (1) GAA at the 1 µM concentration, comparable to its concentration in normal cerebrospinal fluid, does not modify any of the parameters we investigated in either neuronal type; (2) at the 10 µM concentration, very similar to that found in the GAMT deficiency, it did not affect any of the parameters we tested except the bursting rate of neocortical networks and the burst duration of hippocampal networks, both of which were decreased, a change pointing in a direction opposite to epileptogenesis; (3) at the very high and unphysiological 100 µM concentration, it caused a decrease in all parameters, a change that again goes in the direction opposite to epileptogenesis. Our results confirm that GAA is not epileptogenic.
Poggio F, Brofiga M, Tedesco M, Massobrio P, Adriano E, Balestrino M. Lack of Epileptogenic Effects of the Creatine Precursor Guanidinoacetic Acid on Neuronal Cultures In Vitro. Biomolecules. 2023; 13(1):74.