Dietary GAA and growth in lambs
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the only precursor for the creatine synthesis of vertebrates. Creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine (PCr) are able to provide energy for the rapid growth and development of the muscle tissue. This study evaluated the effects of dietary different levels GAA on growth performance, GAA absorption and creatine metabolism of lambs. Twenty-four 3-month-old healthy Kazakh male lambs (body weight = 27.35± 0.58 kg) were randomly divided into four groups with 6 lambs in each group. The lambs were fed with the basal diets supplemented with 0 (0 mg/kg group), 500 (500 mg/kg group), 1000 (1000 mg/kg group) and 1500 mg (1500 mg/kg group) GAA per kg diet (DM basis), respectively. The results showed that, as the GAA content of the diet increased, there was a quadratic change in DMI, with the lowest in the 500 mg/kg group and the highest in the 0 mg/kg group. The CK enzyme activity and ATP content in quadriceps muscle increased linearly with increasing levels of diary GAA in the diet. PCr levels and ADP levels in the longest dorsal muscle increased linearly with increasing levels of GAA in the diet. The relative expression of SLC6A6 and SLC6A8 mRNA in the jejunum and ileum mucosa showed a quadratic change as the dietary GAA level increased, with the lowest relative expression in both the 1500 mg/kg group. With the increase of dietary GAA level, both Cr concentration in hepatic vein plasma and the portal plasma GAA concentration shows a quadratic change, with the highest concentration in the 500 mg/kg group and the lowest concentration in the 0 mg/kg group. Therefore, dietary supplementation with 500~1000 mg/kg DM GAA is recommended for lambs.
Zhang S, Zang C, Pan J, Ma C, Wang C, Li X, Cai W, Yang K. Effects of dietary guanidinoacetic acid on growth performance, guanidinoacetic acid absorption and creatine metabolism of lambs. PLoS One. 2022 Mar 11;17(3):e0264864.