Choline-betaine for GAA-driven rise in Hcy
Rats were fed 25% casein (25C) diets differing in choline levels (0-0.5%) with and without 0.5% guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) or 0.75% L-methionine for 7 d to determine the effects of dietary choline level on experimental hyperhomocysteinemia. The effects of dietary choline (0.30%) and betaine (0.34%) on GAA- and methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia were also compared. Dietary choline suppressed hyperhomocysteinemia induced by GAA, but not by methionine, in a dose-dependent manner. GAA-induced enhancement of the plasma homocysteine concentration was suppressed by choline and betaine to the same degree, but the effects of these compounds were relatively small on methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Dietary supplementation with choline and betaine significantly increased the hepatic betaine concentration in rats fed a GAA diet, but not in rats fed a methionine diet. These results indicate that choline and betaine are effective at relatively low levels in reducing plasma homocysteine, especially under the condition of betaine deficiency without a loading of homocysteine precursor.
Setoue M, Ohuchi S, Morita T, Sugiyama K. Hyperhomocysteinemia induced by guanidinoacetic acid is effectively suppressed by choline and betaine in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008 Jul;72(7):1696-703.