Archives

Physiological roles of GAA and its relationship with arginine

The role of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) and its relationship with arginine was reviewed in order to define a replacement ratio between GAA and arginine for broiler diet formulation, the ratio being of how much arginine could be spared, or replaced by GAA. Guanidionoacetic acid, the precursor of creatine, can be synthesized de novo from the […]

Read More

GAA deficiency: a new entity in clinical medicine

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA, also known as glycocyamine or betacyamine) is a naturally-occurring derivative of glycine and a direct metabolic precursor of creatine, a key player in high-phosphate cellular bioenergetics. GAA is found in human serum and urine, with circulating GAA likely reflects an equilibrium between its endogenous production and utilization/excretion. GAA deficiency (as indicated by […]

Read More

Human gut microbiota as a source of GAA

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural amino acid derivative that acts as a precursor of creatine while being synthesized and utilized in a two-step reaction that takes place in the human kidney and liver. In this paper, we have proposed that guanidinoacetase, an enzyme present in healthy gut microbiota, might contribute to gross GAA turnover […]

Read More

GAA could minimize broiler muscle myopathies

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the biochemical precursor of creatine, which, in its phosphorylated form, is an essential high-energy carrier in the muscle. Although creatine has limited stability in feed processing, GAA is well established as a source of creatine in the animal feed industry. Published data demonstrate beneficial effects of GAA supplementation on muscle creatine, […]

Read More

Guanidinoacetic acid as a feed supplement for poultry

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is immediate substrate for biosynthesis of creatine (CREA). The phosphorylated form of CREA serves as a rapidly mobilisable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle to recycle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and replenish cellular energy levels. Aside from improving energy utilisation, GAA possesses several features which further enhance its value as a feed […]

Read More

Benefits and drawbacks of GAA in AGAT deficiency

Arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that severely affects brain bioenergetics. Characterized by mental retardation, language impairment, and behavioral disorders, AGAT deficiency is a treatable condition, where long-term creatine supplementation usually restores brain creatine levels and improves its clinical features. In some cases of AGAT deficiency, creatine treatment might be somewhat […]

Read More

Creatine and GAA for tissue bioenergetics

A confined absorption of exogenous creatine through creatine transporter (CRT1) seems to hamper its optimal uptake in bioenergetical deficits. Co-administration of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) along with creatine could target other transport channels besides CRT1, and supremely improve cellular levels of creatine. This innovative approach might tackle tissues difficult to reach with conventional creatine interventions, providing […]

Read More

GAA in disorders with functional GAMT and CT1

Many brain disorders are characterized by low creatine levels and impaired bioenergetics in the brain, including neurodegener- ative diseases, psychiatric disorders, or congenital creatine deficiency syndromes. Most patients with inherited or acquired creatine deficits in the brain are treated with different oral creatine formulations in aim to replenish cerebral creatine levels. However, this therapy typically […]

Read More

Safety of novel dietary supplements in sport

The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% […]

Read More

GAA as a performance-enhancing agent

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; also known as glycocyamine or guanidinoacetate) is the natural precursor of creatine, and under investigation as a novel dietary agent. It was first identified as a natural compound in humans ~80 years ago. In the 1950s, GAA’s use as a therapeutic agent was explored, showing that supplemental GAA improved patient-reported outcomes and […]

Read More