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GAA vs. creatine for brain and muscle creatine levels

In this randomized, double-blind, crossover trial, we evaluated whether 4-week supplementation with guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is superior to creatine in facilitating creatine levels in healthy men (n = 5). GAA (3.0 g/day) resulted in a more powerful rise (up to 16.2%) in tissue creatine levels in vastus medialis muscle, middle-cerebellar peduncle, and paracentral grey matter, […]

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Supplementing GAA in chronic fatigue syndrome

A variety of dietary interventions has been used in the management of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), yet no therapeutic modality has demonstrated conclusive positive results in terms of effectiveness. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orally administered guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), musculoskeletal soreness, health-related quality […]

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6-wk GAA loading improves muscular performance

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a natural precursor of creatine, is a new promising dietary supplement, yet its performance-enhancing effect, if any, has yet to be established. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental GAA on muscle strength, anaerobic performance, and aerobic performance in healthy men and women. The study enrolled […]

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Oxidant-antioxidant capacity of dietary GAA

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental nutritional additive under the functional group amino acids and derivatives, yet its use in human nutrition is hindered by limited data on GAA safety. In this double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, we evaluated the effects of dietary GAA (3 g/day) administered for 2 weeks on the oxidant-antioxidant system in […]

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Single-dose GAA exhibits dose-dependent PKs

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), the natural precursor of creatine, has potential as a dietary supplement for human nutrition, yet no data are available regarding its dose-dependent pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior. We hypothesized that a single dose of orally administered GAA exhibited dose-dependent PK behavior in healthy volunteers. Forty-eight young adults were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, […]

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GAA loading affects plasma GABA levels

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine and an innovative dietary agent, activates γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors yet clinical effects of dietary GAA on GABA metabolism are currently unknown. The main aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether GAA loading affected peripheral GABA homeostasis in healthy humans. Eight healthy male volunteers aged […]

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Dose-response effects of dietary GAA

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of creatine (Cr), yet its use in human nutrition is limited due to a lack of a clear understanding of its’ dose-response effect. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dosages of GAA (1.2, 2.4 and 4.8 g/day) administered […]

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Creatine and GAA in human milk and infant formulas

Creatine is essential for normal neural development; children with inborn errors of creatine synthesis or transport exhibit neurological symptoms such as mental retardation, speech delay and epilepsy. Creatine accretion may occur through dietary intake or de novo creatine synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine how much creatine an infant must synthesise […]

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Methyl donors and GAA balance serum homocysteine

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the natural biosynthetic precursor of creatine, in a metabolic reaction that requires only a methyl group transfer. The use of GAA as a food additive for restoring creatine load in human tissues is rather unexplored and data on efficacy and safety are limited. In particular, an increase in serum homocysteine after […]

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Safety profiles after six-week GAA intake

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural precursor of creatine, yet the potential use of GAA as a nutritional additive for restoring creatine availability in humans has been limited by unclear efficacy and safety after exogenous GAA administration. The present study evaluated the effects of orally administered GAA on serum and urinary GAA, creatine and creatinine […]

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