GAA Research Library

Degradation of GAA in engineered cells

Here the authors report the engineering of human red blood cells with an entire metabolic pathway as a potential strategy to treat patients with guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, capable of reducing the high toxic levels of guanidinoacetate acid (GAA) and restoring proper creatine levels in blood and tissues. We first produced a recombinant form of […]

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Dietary GAA and growth in lambs

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is the only precursor for the creatine synthesis of vertebrates. Creatine (Cr) and phosphocreatine (PCr) are able to provide energy for the rapid growth and development of the muscle tissue. This study evaluated the effects of dietary different levels GAA on growth performance, GAA absorption and creatine metabolism of lambs. Twenty-four 3-month-old […]

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GAA content in various foods

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural amino acid derivative involved in several metabolic pathways across the human body, including creatine biosynthesis, arginine utilization, and neuromodulation. Apart from GAA synthesized internally from glycine and arginine, a total daily exposure to GAA also involves exogenous dietary sources. However, a majority of food databases provide no comprehensive data […]

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GAA and creatine nitrate for energy status

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary creatine nitrate (CrN) on growth performance, meat quality, energy status, glycolysis, and related gene expression of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK) pathway in Pectoralis major (PM) muscle of broilers. A total of 240 male Arbor Acres broilers (28-day-old) were randomly allocated to one of 5 […]

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GAA as a partial replacement to arginine

Guanidinoacetic acid is the direct precursor of creatine and can spare arginine (Arg) for creatine synthesis in low crude protein broiler diets. This study aimed to determine the extent GAA could spare Arg in broilers offered low crude protein diets and if supplemental betaine provides additional benefits. Seven hundred twenty-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were […]

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GAA can compensate for low dietary energy

This study compared the responses of broilers to diets supplemented with the same level of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) but formulated to have different N-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn) contents. The study involved 1280, one-day-old Ross 308 broilers, in 64 pens comprising 32 pens of males and 32 pens females, (20 birds in each) aged from […]

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GAA consumption via diet

Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA; also known as glycocyamine) is a natural amino acid-like derivative of glycine and L-arginine. GAA plays several metabolic roles in the human body, with creatine synthesis being recognized as a crucial pathway of GAA utilization. A daily output of GAA largely depends on endogenous synthesis that occurs mainly in the kidney and […]

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GAA-creatine in elderly

The objective of this pilot trial was to evaluate the effects of 8-week GAA-creatine supplementation versus placebo on skeletal muscle and brain creatine levels, cognitive function, functional outcomes, and safety biomarkers in men and women aged 65 years and older. Twenty-one healthy elderly individuals (age 69.6 ± 4.9 years, body mass index 27.6 ± 4.2 […]

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GAA in urea cycle disorders

The urea cycle generates arginine that is one of the major precursors for creatine biosynthesis. Here we evaluate levels of creatine and guanidinoacetate (the precursor in the synthesis of creatine) in plasma samples (ns = 207) of patients (np = 73) with different types of urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (ns = 22; np […]

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Single-cell distribution of GAA synthesis

The enzymes AGAT and GAMT function together to synthesize creatine from arginine, glycine, and S-Adenosyl methionine. Deficiency in either enzyme or the creatine transporter, CT1, results in a devastating neurological disorder, Cerebral Creatine Deficiency Syndrome (CCDS). To better understand the pathophysiology of CCDS, we mapped the distribution of GATM and GAMT at single cell resolution, […]

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