Arginine, GAA and ascites susceptibility
In order to evaluate the effects of ARG sources (arginine [ARG] and Guanidinoacetic acid [GAA]) and phenylalanine (PHE) supplementation on performance, susceptibility to ascites, intestinal morphology, and nutrient digestibility in the cold-stressed broilers fed a canola meal (CM)-based diet, a 2×2 factorial experiment with four treatments was conducted. The dietary treatments included CM-based diet + 2.57 g/kg ARG, CM-based diet + 2.57 g/kg ARG + 1.5 g/kg PHE, CM-based diet + 1.8 g/kg GAA and CM-based diet + 1.8 g/kg GAA + 1.5 g/kg PHE. The corn-CM diet without supplementation was used as a negative control (NC) group in the fifth treatment that excluded the factorial arrangement. The results showed that adding ARG to diets without PHE supplement increased (p < 0.05) feed intake. Also, birds fed diets containing ARG had higher (p < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) compared to those fed GAA added diets. Supplementation of PHE improved (p < 0.05) the FCR compared to groups fed diets without added PHE. Further, ARG addition increased (p < 0.05) plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, carcass, breast and leg yields, duodenal, jejunal, and ileal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD, and dry matter digestibility, while decreasing (p < 0.05) ascites mortality and right ventricle (RV) to total ventricle (TV) ratio compared to GAA added groups. Supplementation of PHE also declined susceptibility to ascites by reducing (p < 0.01) RV to TV ratio while increasing (p < 0.05) plasma NO level. The digestibility of ether extract also increased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed GAA supplemented diets versus those fed ARG added diets. The findings suggested that ARG may improve BWG and lower ascites incidence in broilers fed a diet based on CM under cold stress because of its antihypertensive effects. Moreover, the findings of this study demonstrated the importance of including PHE formulation in ARG-deficient diets to attenuate the adverse effects of cold stress on broilers. It was also concluded that GAA could be efficaciously used in cold-stressed broilers fed an ARG-deficient diet.
Delfani N, Daneshyar M, Farhoomand P, Alijoo YA, Payvastegan S, Najafi G. Effects of arginine and guanidinoacetic acid with or without phenylalanine on ascites susceptibility in cold-stressed broilers fed canola meal-based diet. J Anim Sci Technol. 2023 Jan;65(1):69-95.