• Research Articles

    Brings forth the most in-depth body of knowledge relating to guanidinoacetic acid metabolism, pathophysiology and nutritional supplementation

  • Review Articles

    Summarizing recent progress in guanidinoacetic acid research, from its role in neuromuscular diseases to GAA shortfall in clinical medicine

GAA-creatine in elderly

GAA-creatine in elderly

The objective of this pilot trial was to evaluate the effects of 8-week GAA-creatine supplementation versus placebo on skeletal…

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GAA in urea cycle disorders

GAA in urea cycle disorders

The urea cycle generates arginine that is one of the major precursors for creatine biosynthesis. Here we evaluate levels…

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Single-cell distribution of GAA synthesis

Single-cell distribution of GAA synthesis

The enzymes AGAT and GAMT function together to synthesize creatine from arginine, glycine, and S-Adenosyl methionine. Deficiency in either…

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Phenotyping GAA in nocturnal enuresis

Phenotyping GAA in nocturnal enuresis

Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common problem among 10% school-aged children. The etiologies underlying childhood NE is complex and…

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About GAA Science

GAA-science.com is an educational portal established to collect, classify and present the scientific studies on guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) in one place. The papers are collected from peer-reviewed academic journals and publications, and relevant scientific events.

Our mission is to collect unbiased data and provide current best evidence in making decisions about the use of GAA in health and disease.

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GAA and Insulin Secretion

Physiological roles of GAA

GAA could affect many aspects of human metabolism, including cellular bioenergetics, neuromodulation, or oxidant-antioxidant status.

Latest events

CCDS Virtual Conference

6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition

22nd European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition (ESPN 2019)

Papers in 2021

GAA Fundamentals

Guanidinoacetic acid (also known as glycocyamine or betacyamine) is a normal constituent of human blood, urine, and breast milk.

Being a natural amino acid derivative and a metabolite in the urea cycle, GAA also appears as an intermediate in metabolic pathways of several amino acids, including glycine, serine and arginine. GAA is direct precursor of creatine, a key substrate for cellular energy.

  • CAS Registry # 362-97-6
  • PubChem CID 763
  • Chemical formula C3H7N3O2
  • Molar mass 117.1 g/mol

The natural daily turnover of GAA is balanced between endogenous production and kidney excretion; only a minimal amount of GAA is available from food sources (e.g. 10 mg of GAA per kg of meat).

PubChem Summary

Age related reference values for urine creatine and GAA in children

Carla Valongo, Maria Luís Cardoso, Pedro Domingues, et al.

Creatine and GAA transport at blood-brain and and blood‐CSF barriers

Olivier Braissant

Tackling guanidinoacetic acid for advanced cellular bioenergetics

Sergej M Ostojic

Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas

Erica E Edison, Margaret E Brosnan, Khalid Aziz, John T Brosnan

Dr. Sergej Ostojic

GAA-science.com was created and administered by a research group headed by Sergej M. Ostojic, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine at the University of Novi Sad and the University of Belgrade, who has been involved in GAA research for many years.

  1. May 2010

    First registered human trial with GAA

  2. March 2008

    GAA as feed additive in poultry

    Evonik Industries
  3. October 1951

    First use of GAA in human nutrition

  4. October 1934

    GAA isolated from urine of dogs and humans

    University of Kansas

Golden Legacy Articles

Betaine and GAA for chronic residuals of poliomyelitis
JAMA. 1952;150(9):851-3
Betaine and glyocyamine in treatment of poliomyelitis
N Engl J Med. 1953;248(15):621-3.
Creatine and GAA metabolism in muscle disease
Brain. 1953;76(2):299-310.
Glycocyamine and betaine in motor-neurone disease
Lancet. 1956;271(6953):1136-8