• Research Articles

    Brings forth the most in-depth body of knowledge relating to guanidinoacetic acid metabolism, pathophysiology and nutritional supplementation

  • Review Articles

    Summarizing recent progress in guanidinoacetic acid research, from its role in neuromuscular diseases to GAA shortfall in clinical medicine

GAA increased egg production and egg mass

GAA increased egg production and egg mass

Different levels of metabolizable energy (ME) and the inclusion of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) in the diet of 53-week-old Lohmann…

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Omics of dietary GAA

Omics of dietary GAA

The development and characteristics of muscle fibers in broilers are critical determinants that influence their growth performance, as well…

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GAA promotes muscle development

GAA promotes muscle development

The aim of this study was to explore the molecular mechanisms through which different levels of GAA affect chicken…

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Alteration of GAA in syringomyelia

Alteration of GAA in syringomyelia

Syringomyelia (SM) is characterized by the development of fluid-filled cavities, referred to as syrinxes, within the spinal cord tissue.…

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About GAA Science

GAA-science.com is an educational portal established to collect, classify and present the scientific studies on guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) in one place. The papers are collected from peer-reviewed academic journals and publications, and relevant scientific events.

Our mission is to collect unbiased data and provide current best evidence in making decisions about the use of GAA in health and disease.

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GAA and Insulin Secretion

Physiological roles of GAA

GAA could affect many aspects of human metabolism, including cellular bioenergetics, neuromodulation, or oxidant-antioxidant status.

Latest events

23rd European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition (ESPN 2023)

CCDS Virtual Conference

6th EAAP International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition

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Papers in 2024

GAA Fundamentals

Guanidinoacetic acid (also known as glycocyamine or betacyamine) is a normal constituent of human blood, urine, and breast milk.

Being a natural amino acid derivative and a metabolite in the urea cycle, GAA also appears as an intermediate in metabolic pathways of several amino acids, including glycine, serine and arginine. GAA is direct precursor of creatine, a key substrate for cellular energy.

  • CAS Registry # 362-97-6
  • PubChem CID 763
  • Chemical formula C3H7N3O2
  • Molar mass 117.1 g/mol

The natural daily turnover of GAA is balanced between endogenous production and kidney excretion; only a minimal amount of GAA is available from food sources (e.g. 10 mg of GAA per kg of meat).

PubChem Summary

Age related reference values for urine creatine and GAA in children

Carla Valongo, Maria Luís Cardoso, Pedro Domingues, et al.

Creatine and GAA transport at blood-brain and and blood‐CSF barriers

Olivier Braissant

Tackling guanidinoacetic acid for advanced cellular bioenergetics

Sergej M Ostojic

Creatine and guanidinoacetate content of human milk and infant formulas

Erica E Edison, Margaret E Brosnan, Khalid Aziz, John T Brosnan

Dr. Sergej Ostojic

GAA-science.com was created and administered by a research group headed by Sergej M. Ostojic, MD, PhD, Professor of Nutrition at the University of Agder and the University of Novi Sad, who has been involved in GAA research for over a decade.

  1. December 2011


    First clinical trial with GAA
  2. January 2007


    First application of GAA as feed additive
  3. October 1951


    First documented application of GAA in human nutrition
  4. April 1935

    University of Kansas

    GAA isolated from human urine

Golden Legacy Articles

Betaine and GAA for chronic residuals of poliomyelitis
JAMA. 1952;150(9):851-3
Betaine and glyocyamine in treatment of poliomyelitis
N Engl J Med. 1953;248(15):621-3.
Creatine and GAA metabolism in muscle disease
Brain. 1953;76(2):299-310.
Glycocyamine and betaine in motor-neurone disease
Lancet. 1956;271(6953):1136-8